In a defeat for Republican leadership, the House rejected a sweeping farm bill last week, amid opposition from both sides of the aisle.
More than 60 House Republicans defected and voted against the half-trillion-dollar bill, which sets funding for farm subsidies and other assistance as well as food stamps.
The vote was 234-195 against the bill.
The defeat was not expected. House Speaker John Boehner, who rarely votes, supported the bill. Members stood in silence as they watched the scoreboard.
Chamber leaders were facing pressure from both sides. The plan imposes significant cuts to food stamp programs and eliminates direct payments to farmers. It also reworks the dairy program, replacing guaranteed price supports with insurance.
Democrats opposed the cuts to food stamps. But powerful conservative groups -- including the Heritage Foundation, which is led by former Republican Sen. Jim DeMint -- lobbied against some of the bill's remaining and costly farm subsidies. And some Republicans pressed for deeper food stamp cuts.
Sixty-two Republicans voted no, while 24 Democrats voted in favor of the bill.