Many Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) participants find themselves facing some tough decisions after being notified their contracts will not be renewed, according to Ted McCollum, Texas AgriLife Extension beef cattle specialist.
But, in McCollum’s mind, there’s one decision that should be easy to make. “I think we need to keep most of this land in rangeland,” he says.
Land put into CRP in the mid 1980s was planted primarily in the High Plains to native grasses, Old World bluestems or weeping love grass, he says. There are about 4 million acres of CRP in Texas, much of it in the High Plains.
“About 10 years ago when we first started seeing people come out of the program, we realized we would not be making the same amount as with government payments,” McCollum says. “But we know properly managed Old World bluestem and weeping love grass can produce more beef per acre than native rangelands in the region.”
The first step is to renovate the pastures. That includes fencing, water development and rejuvenation of the forage stand. Exact needs depend on if the land has been utilized under the managed haying and grazing allowance, emergency drought provisions, or has been lying idle the entire contract period.
Livestock water is a major consideration, McCollum says. Planning must be based on how much water will be required daily and where the watering site will be located. These decisions must also take into account fencing layouts and grazing management plans, so a producer should formulate some ideas on the overall operation and use of the land before developing livestock water.
“Remember, cattle consume water in one or two drinking bouts per day, which means they take in a lot of water at once,” McCollum says. “Watering tends to be a herd activity on large acreage, but an individual activity on small acreage, so that affects the storage and refill rate required.”
Fencing decisions must be made simultaneously with the watering decisions, he says, because one governs the other. When designing a fence layout, keep in mind grazing management, cattle handling and movement, machinery access for fertilization, well maintenance and integration with other grazing areas.
Landowners also must consider how they want to renovate the forage stand to enhance the vigor, stimulate tiller production and recruit new plants.
“The first step is to remove the standing, decadent plant material and some of the thatch that can stifle developing tillers and seedlings,” McCollum says. “Prescribed burning in the late winter or early spring is going to be the easiest way.”
The material also can be cut and baled. If thatch buildup is a problem, though, don’t mow the area and leave the mowed forage on the ground. Other means are shredding, disking or mob grazing during the forage’s dormant season. Animal performance may be sacrificed with mob grazing, but this may be a more acceptable approach for some.
Stands seeded to weeping love grass and Old World bluestem can’t be managed the same as stands seeded to native grasses or existing rangeland, McCollum said.
For stands seeded to native grasses, McCollum suggests applying the same management practices recommended to maintain the productivity and health of rangelands in the region. These include attention to forage utilization, maintaining adequate groundcover and residue, and seasonal deferment of grazing. Carrying capacity or stocking rate will possibly be somewhat higher than on rangeland.
“Consider whether you need seasonal or year-round grazing. Make sure you can accommodate a rest period before dormancy on the grass,” he says. “Your nutritional management of the cattle will be similar as that on rangeland.”
Weeping love grass initiates growth in late March to early April. Because of its rapid growth and decline in nutritional value, management can be a challenge and spot grazing can be a problem.
In addition, love grass must be deferred from September until after frost. The best management practice is to use rotational grazing for a limited time during the growing season followed by removal of the excess residue during the dormant season.
Weeping love grass has its best nutritional value for 60-80 days beginning in late April, McCollum says. Hence, grazing during the growing season should be focused from May through July. In the winter, the love grass residue is acceptable as forage for cows and stockers if it is supplemented with protein.
He outlines eight keys to weeping love grass management:
- Remove old growth prior to spring green-up by grazing, burning or mowing.
- Fertilize nitrogen in 30-lb. increments beginning in April.
- Accumulate 6 in. of new spring growth before turnout.
- Rotationally graze using 21- to 40-day intervals; grazing only 3-7 days on a paddock and then deferring.
- Cut or graze to a 4-in. stubble during each rotation cycle with grazing or hay harvest.
- Control spot grazing.
- Rest during September, October and November and then graze aftermath in the winter.
- Use as a part of a forage system in combination with other range and pasture resources.
The keys for Old World bluestem use are similar to the weeping love grass, but with the fertilization as a single application of 30-50 lbs. of nitrogen in May. Rotational grazing should be based on 30- to 45-day cycles with 4-7 days grazing on each paddock.
-- Texas AgriLife Extension release