Nutrition research spanning more than 100 years has defined the nutrients required by animals. Using this information, diets can be formulated from feeds and ingredients to meet these requirements with the expectation that animals will remain healthy, productive and efficient. The ultimate goal of feed analysis is to predict the productive response of animals when fed diets of a given nutrient composition.

Table values

Unlike chemicals that are “chemically pure” and thus have a constant composition, feeds vary in their composition for many reasons.

So what is the value of showing composition data for feeds? An actual analysis of a feed to be used in a diet is much more accurate than using tabulated composition data, and actual analysis should be obtained and used whenever possible. But it's often difficult to determine actual composition in a timely way; therefore, tabulated data are the best source of information.

In using tabulated values, one can expect organic constituents (e.g., crude protein, ether extract and fiber) to vary as much as ±15%, mineral constituents to vary as much as ±30% and energy values to vary up to ±10%. Thus, the values shown can only serve as guides. That's why they are called “typical values.” They're not averages of published information, since judgment was used in arriving at some of the values in the hope they will be realistic for use in formulating cattle and sheep diets.

New crop varieties may result in nutrient composition changes. Genetically modified crops may result in feeds with improved nutrient content and availability, and/or decreased anti-nutrient factors.

Chemical constituents vs. biological attributes

Feeds can be chemically analyzed for many things that may or may not be related to the response of an animal when fed the feed. Thus, in the accompanying table certain chemical constituents are shown. The response of cattle and sheep when fed a feed, however, can be termed the “biological response” to the feed. It's a function of the feed's chemical composition and the ability of the animal to derive useful nutrient value from it.

The latter relates to the digestibility or availability of a nutrient in the feed for absorption into the body and its ultimate efficiency of use depending upon the animal's nutrient status and the productive or physiological function being performed by the animal. Thus, ground fence posts and shelled corn may have the same gross energy value but markedly different useful energy value (total digestible nutrients — TDN — or net energy) when consumed by the animal.

Therefore, a feed's “biological attributes” have much greater meaning in predicting the productive response of animals. Unfortunately, biological attributes are more difficult to precisely determine because of the interaction between the feed's chemical composition and the animal's digestive and metabolic capabilities. Biological attributes of feeds are more laborious and costly to determine and are more variable than chemical constituents. They're generally more predictive, however, since they relate to the animal's response to the feed or diet.

Source of table information

Several sources of information were used in arriving at the “typical values” shown in the table. Where data were not available, but a reasonable estimate could be made from similar feeds or stage of maturity, this was done; after all, it's not too helpful to have a table with considerable missing information. Where zeros appear, the amount of that item is so small it can be considered insignificant in practical diet formulation. Blanks indicate the value is unknown.

Using table information

Feed names: The most obvious or commonly used feed names are used in the table. Feeds designated as “fresh” are feeds that are grazed or fed as fresh-cut materials.

Dry matter: Typical dry matter (DM) values are shown, but the moisture content of feeds can vary greatly. Thus, DM content can be the biggest reason for variation in feed composition on an “as-fed basis.” For this reason, chemical constituents and biological attributes of feeds shown in the table are on a DM basis.

Since DM can vary greatly, and one of the factors regulating total feed intake is the DM content of feeds, diet formulation on a DM basis is preferable to “as-fed” values. However, to convert a value to an as-fed basis, simply multiply the decimal equivalent of the DM content times the compositional value shown in the table.

Energy: The table lists four measures of the energy value of feeds. TDN is shown because there are more determined TDN values and it's been the standard system for expressing the energy value of feeds for cattle and sheep. There are several technical problems with TDN, however.

For one, the digestibility of crude fiber (CF) may be higher than for nitrogen-free extract (NFE) in certain feeds due to the partition of lignin in the CF analysis. TDN also overestimates the energy value of roughages compared to concentrates in producing animals. Some argue that since energy isn't measured in pounds or percent, TDN isn't a valid energy measure. This, however, is more a scientific argument than a criticism of TDN's predictive value.

Digestible energy (DE) values aren't included in the table. There's a fairly constant relationship between TDN and DE in cattle and sheep; DE (Mcal/cwt.) can be calculated by multiplying the %TDN content by 2. The ability of TDN and DE to predict animal performance is therefore the same.

Interest in using net energy (NE) in feed evaluation was renewed with the development of the California net energy system. This is due to the improved predictability of the productive response of animals depending on whether feed energy is being used for maintenance (NEm), growth (NEg) or lactation (NEl). The major problem in using these NE values is predicting feed intake and thus the proportion of feed that will be used for maintenance and production. Some only use NEg but this suffers the equal but opposite criticism mentioned for TDN; NEg will overestimate the feeding value of concentrates relative to roughages.

The average of the two NE values can be used, but this would be true only for cattle and sheep eating twice their maintenance energy requirement. The most accurate way to use these NE values to formulate diets is to use the NEm value plus a multiplier times the NEg value, all divided by one plus the multiplier. The multiplier is the level of feed intake relative to maintenance.

For example, if 700-lb. cattle are expected to eat 18 lbs. of DM, 8 lbs. of which will be required for maintenance, the diet's NE value would be: NE = [NEm + (10/8)(NEg)]/[1 + (10/8)]

In deciding on the energy system to use, there is no question on NE's theoretical superiority over TDN in predicting animal performance. But this superiority is lost if only NEg is used to formulate diets. If NE is used, some combination of NEm and NEg is best.

NEl values are also shown but few have actually been determined. NEl values are similar to NEm values except for very high- and low-energy feeds.

Protein: Crude protein (CP) values are shown, which are Kjeldahl nitrogen times 100/16 or 6.25, since proteins contain 16% nitrogen on the average. CP provides no information on the actual protein and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content of a feed.

Digestible protein (DP) has been included in many feed composition tables. But because of the contribution of microbial and body protein to the protein in feces, DP is more misleading than CP. One can estimate DP from the CP content of the diet fed to cattle or sheep by the following equation: %DP = 0.9(%CP) - 3 where %DP and %CP are the diet values on a DM basis.

Undegradable intake protein (UIP; rumen “by-pass” or escape protein) values represent the percent of CP passing through the rumen without degradation by rumen microorganisms. Degradable intake protein (DIP) is the percent of CP degraded in the rumen and is equal to 100 minus UIP. Like other biological attributes, these values are not constant. UIP values on many feeds have not been determined and reasonable estimates are difficult to make.

How should these values be used to improve the predictability of animal performance when fed various feeds? Generally, DIP can supply CP up to 7% of the diet. If the required CP in the diet exceeds 7% of the DM, all CP above this amount should be UIP. In other words, if the final diet is to contain 13% CP, six of the 13 percentage units, or 46% of the CP, should be UIP.

Once the relationships between UIP and DIP have been better quantified, CP requirements may be lowered, especially at higher CP levels. For diets high in rumen fermentable carbohydrate, DIP requirements may determine the total CP required in the diet.

Crude, acid detergent and neutral detergent fiber: After more than 125 years, crude fiber (CF) is declining in use as a measure of poorly digested carbohydrates in feeds. Its major problem is that variable amounts of lignin, which isn't digestible, are removed in the CF procedure. In the old scheme, the remaining carbohydrates (NFE) were thought to be more digestible than CF despite many feeds having higher CF digestibility than NFE. One reason CF remained in the analytical scheme was its apparent requirement for the TDN calculation.

Improved analytical procedures for fiber have been developed, namely acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). ADF is related to feed digestibility and NDF is somewhat related to voluntary intake and the availability of net energy. Both measures relate more directly to predicted animal performance and thus are more valuable than CF. Lignification of NDF, however, alters the availability of the surface area to fiber-digesting rumen microorganisms; lignin, therefore, may be added to future tables.

Recently, effective NDF (eNDF) has been used to better describe the dietary fiber function in high-concentrate, feedlot-type diets. While eNDF is defined as the percent of NDF retained on a screen similar in size to particles that will pass from the rumen, this value is further modified based on feed density and degree of hydration.

Rumen pH is correlated with dietary eNDF when diets contain less than 26% eNDF. Thus, when formulating high-concentrate diets, including eNDF may help to prevent acidosis in the rumen. In feedlot diets, the recommended eNDF levels range from 5-20% depending on bunk management, inclusion of ionophores, digestion of NDF and/or microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.

Estimated eNDF values are shown for many feeds. These should be decreased depending on degree of feed processing (e.g., chopping, grinding, pelleting, flaking) and hydration (fresh forage, silages, high moisture grains) if these feed forms aren't specified in the table.

Ether extract: Ether extract (EE) shows the feed's crude fat content.

Minerals: Values are shown for only certain minerals. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are important minerals to consider in most feeding situations. Potassium (K) is more important as the concentrate level increases and when NPN is substituted for intact protein in the diet.

Sulfur (S) also becomes more important as the NPN level increases in the diet. High dietary S levels compounded by high S levels in drinking water, however, can be detrimental. Zinc (Zn) is shown because it's less variable and is more generally near a deficient level in cattle and sheep diets. Chlorine (Cl) is of increasing interest for its role in dietary acid-base relationships.

The level of many other trace minerals in feeds is largely determined by the level in the soil on which the feeds are grown or other environmental factors that preclude showing a single value. Iodine and selenium are required nutrients that may be deficient in many diets, yet their level in a feed is more related to the conditions under which the feed is grown than to a characteristic of the feed itself. Trace mineralized salt and trace mineral premixes are generally used to supplement trace minerals; their use is encouraged where deficiencies exist.

Vitamins: Vitamins aren't included in the table. The only vitamin of general practical importance in cattle and sheep feeding is the vitamin A value (vitamin A and carotene) in feeds. This depends largely on maturity and conditions at harvest, and the length and conditions during storage. Thus, it is probably unwise to rely entirely on harvested feeds as a source of vitamin A value.

Where roughages are fed that contain good green color or are being fed as immature, fresh forages (e.g., pasture), there will probably be sufficient vitamin A value to meet animal requirements. Other vitamins, if required, should be supplied as supplements.

Future table revisions

A feed composition table is of value only if it's relatively complete, contains feeds commonly fed and the data are constantly updated. Suggestions and compositional data to keep this table useful to the cattle and sheep industry are welcomed.

When sending compositional data, adequately describe the feed, indicate the DM or moisture content and if the analytical values are on an as-fed or DM basis. If more than one sample was analyzed, indicate the number of samples analyzed.

2010 Feed Composition Tables

Editor's Note: Since 1957, Rod Preston, Ph.D., has taught and conducted animal nutrition research in the areas of protein, minerals, growth and body composition. He's also conducted cattle-feeding research on the energy value of feeds, growth enhancers and nutrition management.

Preston was a member of the National Resource Council Committee on Animal Nutrition and president of the American Society of Animal Science. He is retired as Emeritus Professor from Texas Tech University, where he was a Horn Distinguished Professor and held the Thornton Endowed Chair. Preston's current address is 1495 E. Village Lane #B, Bellingham, WA 98226-8017.

You can download a PDF of the Composition Tables Here

All values except dry matter (DM) are shown on a DM basis.



ENERGY PROTEIN FIBER
FEEDSTUFF DM
%
TDN
%
NEm NEg NEl CP
%
UIP
%
CF
%
ADF
%
NDF
%
eNDF
%
EE
%
ASH
%
Ca
%
P
%
K
%
Cl
%
S
%
Zn
ppm
(Mcal/cwt.)
Alfalfa Cubes 91 57 57 25 57 18 30 29 36 46 40 2.0 11 1.30 0.23 1.9 0.37 0.33 20
Alfalfa Dehydrated 17% CP 92 61 62 31 61 19 60 26 34 45 6 3.0 11 1.42 0.25 2.5 0.45 0.28 21
Alfalfa Fresh 24 61 62 31 61 19 18 27 34 46 41 3.0 9 1.35 0.27 2.6 0.40 0.29 18
Alfalfa Hay Early Bloom 90 59 59 28 59 19 20 28 35 45 92 2.5 8 1.41 0.26 2.5 0.38 0.28 22
Alfalfa Hay Midbloom 89 58 58 26 58 17 23 30 36 47 92 2.3 9 1.40 0.24 2.0 0.38 0.27 24
Alfalfa Hay Full Bloom 88 54 54 20 54 16 25 34 40 52 92 2.0 8 1.20 0.23 1.7 0.37 0.25 23
Alfalfa Hay Mature 88 50 50 12 49 13 30 38 45 59 92 1.3 8 1.18 0.19 1.5 0.35 0.21 23
Alfalfa Seed Screenings 91 84 92 61 87 34
13 15

10.7 6 0.30 0.67



Alfalfa Silage 30 55 55 21 55 18 19 28 37 49 82 3.0 9 1.40 0.29 2.6 0.41 0.29 26
Alfalfa Silage Wilted 39 58 58 26 58 18 22 28 37 49 82 3.0 9 1.40 0.29 2.6 0.41 0.29 26
Alfalfa Leaf Meal 89 60 60 30 60 26 15 16 24 34 35 3.0 10 2.88 0.34 2.2
0.32 39
Alfalfa Stems 89 47 47 7 46 11 44 44 51 68 100 1.3 6 0.90 0.18 2.5


Almond Hulls 89 56 56 23 56 3 60 16 29 36 100 3.1 7 0.24 0.10 2.0 0.03 0.07 20
Ammonium Chloride 99 0 0 0 0 163 0 0 0 0 0 0.0
0.00 0.00 0.0 66.00 0.00 0
Ammonium Sulfate 99 0 0 0 0 132 0 0 0 0 0 0.0




24.15
Apples 17 70 73 44 71 3 10 7 9 25 10 2.2 2 0.06 0.60 0.8


Apple Pomace Wet 20 68 70 41 69 5 10 18 27 36 27 5.2 3 0.13 0.12 0.5
0.04 11
Apple Pomace Dried 89 67 69 40 68 5 15 18 28 38 29 5.2 3 0.13 0.12 0.5
0.04 11
Artichoke Tops (Jerusalem) 27 61 62 31 61 6
18 30 41 40 1.1 10 1.62 0.11 1.4


Avocado Seed Meal 91 52 52 16 51 20
19 24

1.2 16





Bahiagrass Hay 90 53 53 18 53 6 37 32 41 72 98 1.8 7 0.47 0.20 1.4
0.21
Bakery Product Dried 90 90 100 68 94 11 30 3 9 30 0 11.5 4 0.16 0.27 0.4 2.25 0.15 33
Barley Hay 90 57 57 25 57 9
28 37 65 98 2.1 8 0.30 0.28 1.6
0.19 25
Barley Silage 35 59 58 26 58 12 22 34 37 58 61 3.0 9 0.46 0.30 2.4
0.22 28
Barley Silage Mature 35 58 58 26 58 12 25 30 34 50 61 3.5 9 0.30 0.20 1.5
0.15 25
Barley Straw 90 44 44 1 43 4 70 42 55 78 100 1.9 7 0.32 0.08 2.2 0.67 0.16 7
Barley Grain 89 84 92 61 87 12 28 5 7 20 34 2.1 3 0.06 0.38 0.6 0.18 0.16 23
Barley Grain, Steam Flaked 85 90 100 70 100 12 39 5 7 20 30 2.1 3 0.06 0.35 0.6 0.18 0.16 23
Barley Grain, Steam Rolled 86 84 92 61 87 12 38 5 7 20 27 2.1 3 0.06 0.41 0.6 0.18 0.17 30
Barley Grain 2-row 87 84 92 61 87 12
6 8 24 34 2.3 2 0.05 0.31 0.6 0.18 0.17
Barley Grain 6-row 87 84 92 61 87 11
6 8 24 34 2.2 3 0.05 0.36 0.6 0.18 0.15
Barley Grain Lt. Wt. (42-44 lb/bu) 88 78 83 54 80 13 30 9 12 30 34 2.3 4





Barley Feed Pearl By-product 90 74 78 49 76 15 25 12 15

3.9 5 0.05 0.45 0.7
0.06
Barley Bran 91 59 59 28 59 12 28 21 27 36 6 4.3 7





Barley Grain Screenings 89 71 74 46 73 12
9 11

2.6 4 0.35 0.33 0.9
0.15
Beans Navy Cull 90 85 93 62 88 24 25 5 8 20 0 1.4 5 0.15 0.60 1.4 0.06 0.26 45
Beet Pulp Wet 17 77 82 53 79 10 35 20 23 45 30 0.7 5 0.65 0.08 0.9 0.40 0.22 21
Beet Pulp Dried 91 76 81 52 78 10 44 21 25 46 33 0.7 5 0.65 0.08 0.9 0.40 0.22 21
Beet Pulp Wet with Molasses 24 77 82 53 79 11 25 16 21 39 33 0.6 6 0.60 0.10 1.8
0.42 11
Beet Pulp Dried with Molasses 92 77 82 53 79 11 34 17 23 40 33 0.6 6 0.60 0.10 1.8
0.42 11
Beet Tops (Sugar) 19 58 58 26 58 14
11 14 25 41 1.3 24 1.10 0.22 5.2 0.20 0.45 20
Beet Top Silage 25 52 52 16 51 12
12


2.0 32 1.38 0.22 5.7
0.57 20
Bermudagrass Coastal Dehydrated 90 62 63 33 63 16 40 26 29 40 10 3.8 7 0.40 0.25 1.8 0.72 0.23 18
Bermudagrass Coastal Hay 89 56 56 23 56 10 20 30 36 73 98 2.1 6 0.47 0.21 1.5 0.70 0.22 16
Bermudagrass Hay 89 53 53 18 53 10 18 29 37 72 98 1.9 8 0.46 0.20 1.5 0.70 0.25 31
Bermudagrass Silage 26 50 50 12 49 10 15 28 35 71 48 1.9 8 0.46 0.20 1.5 0.72 0.25 31
Birdsfoot Trefoil Fresh 22 66 68 38 67 21 20 21 31 47 41 4.4 9 1.78 0.25 2.6
0.25 31
Birdsfoot Trefoil Hay 89 57 57 25 57 16 22 31 38 50 92 2.2 8 1.73 0.24 1.8
0.25 28
Biuret 99 0 0 0 0 248 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 0
Blood Meal, Swine/Poultry 91 66 68 38 67 92 82 1 2 10 0 1.4 3 0.32 0.28 0.2 0.30 0.70 22
Bluegrass KY Fresh Early Bloom 36 69 71 43 70 15 20 27 32 60 41 3.9 7 0.37 0.30 1.9 0.42 0.19 25
Bluegrass Straw 93 45 45 3 44 6
40 50 78 90 1.1 6 0.20 0.10



Bluestem Fresh Mature 61 50 50 12 49 6
34


2.5 5 0.40 0.12 0.8
0.05 28
Bone Meal Steamed, Swine/Poultry 95 16 27 0 11 13
1 0 0 0 11.6 77 27.00 12.74 0.2
2.50 290
Bread By-product 68 90 100 68 94 14 24 1 2 3 0 3.0 3 0.10 0.18 0.2 0.76 0.15 40
Brewers Grains Wet 23 85 93 62 88 26 52 13 21 45 18 7.5 4 0.30 0.58 0.1 0.15 0.32 78
Brewers Grains Dried 92 84 92 61 87 25 54 14 24 49 18 7.5 4 0.30 0.58 0.1 0.15 0.32 78
Brewers Yeast Dried 94 79 85 55 81 48
3


1.0 7 0.10 1.56 1.8
0.41 41
Bromegrass Fresh Immature 30 64 65 36 65 15 22 28 33 54 40 4.1 10 0.45 0.34 2.3
0.21 20
Bromegrass Hay 89 55 55 21 55 10 33 35 41 66 98 2.3 9 0.40 0.23 1.9 0.40 0.19 19
Bromegrass Haylage 35 57 57 25 57 11 26 36 44 69 61 2.5 8 0.38 0.30 2.0
0.20 19
Buckwheat Grain 88 75 79 50 77 12
13 17

2.8 2 0.11 0.36 0.5 0.05 0.16 10
Buttermilk Dried 92 88 98 65 91 34 0 5 0 0 0 5.0 10 1.44 1.00 0.9
0.09 44
Cactus, Prickly Pear 23 61 62 31 62 5
16 20 28
2.1 18 4.00 0.10 1.5
0.20
Calcium Carbonate 99 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 99 38.50 0.04 0.1
0.00 0
Canarygrass Hay 91 53 53 18 53 9 26 32 34 67 98 2.7 8 0.38 0.25 2.7
0.14 18
Canola Meal, Solv. Ext. 90 72 75 47 74 41 30 11 19 29 23 2.0 8 0.74 1.14 1.1 0.07 0.78 68
Carrot Pulp 14 62 63 33 63 6
19 23 40 0 7.8 9





Carrot Root Fresh 12 83 90 60 86 10
9 11 20 0 1.4 10 0.55 0.32 2.5 0.50 0.17
Carrot Tops 16 73 77 48 75 13
18 23 45 41 3.8 15 1.94 0.19 1.9


Cattle Manure Dried 92 38 40 0 36 15
35 42 55 0 2.5 14 1.15 1.20 0.6
1.78 240
Cheatgrass Fresh Immature 21 68 70 41 69 16
23


2.7 10 0.60 0.28



Citrus Pulp Dried 90 78 83 54 80 7 38 13 20 21 33 2.9 7 1.81 0.12 0.8 0.04 0.08 14
Clover Ladino Fresh 19 69 71 43 70 25 20 14 33 35 41 4.8 11 1.27 0.38 2.4
0.20 20
Clover Ladino Hay 90 61 62 31 61 21 25 22 32 36 92 2.0 9 1.35 0.32 2.4 0.30 0.20 17
Clover Red Fresh 24 64 65 36 65 18 21 24 33 44 41 4.0 9 1.70 0.30 2.0 0.60 0.17 23
Clover Red Hay 88 55 55 21 55 15 28 30 39 51 92 2.5 8 1.50 0.25 1.7 0.32 0.17 17
Clover Sweet Hay 91 53 53 18 53 16 30 30 38 50 92 2.4 9 1.27 0.25 1.8 0.37 0.46
Coconut Meal, Mech. Ext. 92 76 81 52 78 21 56 13 21 56 23 6.8 7 0.40 0.30 1.0 0.33 0.04
Coffee Grounds 88 20 36 0 16 13
41 68 77 10 15.0 2 0.10 0.08



Corn Whole Plant Pelleted 91 63 64 34 64 9 45 21 24 40 6 2.4 6 0.50 0.24 0.9
0.14
Corn Fodder 80 65 66 37 66 9 45 25 29 48 100 2.4 7 0.50 0.25 0.9 0.20 0.14
Corn Stover Mature (Stalks) 80 54 54 20 54 5 30 35 43 70 100 1.3 7 0.45 0.15 1.2 0.30 0.14 22
Corn Silage Milk Stage 26 65 66 37 66 8 18 26 32 54 60 2.8 6 0.40 0.27 1.6
0.11 20
Corn Silage Mature Well Eared 34 72 75 47 74 8 28 21 27 46 70 3.1 5 0.28 0.23 1.1 0.20 0.13 22
Corn Silage Sweet Corn 24 65 66 37 66 11
20 32 57 60 5.0 5 0.24 0.26 1.2 0.17 0.16 39
Corn Grain Whole 88 88 98 65 91 9 58 2 3 9 60 4.3 2 0.02 0.30 0.4 0.05 0.14 18
Corn Grain Rolled 88 88 98 65 91 9 54 2 3 9 34 4.3 2 0.02 0.30 0.4 0.05 0.14 18
Corn Grain, Steam Flaked 85 93 104 71 97 9 59 2 3 9 40 4.1 2 0.02 0.27 0.4 0.05 0.14 18
Corn Grain, High Moisture 74 93 104 71 97 10 42 2 3 9 0 4.0 2 0.02 0.30 0.4 0.06 0.14 20
Corn Grain, High Oil 88 91 102 69 95 8 54 2 3 8 60 6.9 2 0.01 0.30 0.3 0.05 0.13 18
Corn Grain, Hi-Lysine 92 87 96 64 90 12 58 4 4 11 60 4.4 2 0.03 0.24 0.4 0.05 0.11 18
Corn and Cob Meal 87 82 89 59 85 9 52 9 11 26 56 3.7 2 0.06 0.27 0.5 0.05 0.13 16
Corn Cobs 90 48 48 9 47 3 70 36 39 88 56 0.6 2 0.12 0.04 0.8
0.27 5
Corn Screenings 86 91 102 69 95 10 52 3 4 9 20 4.3 2 0.04 0.27 0.4 0.05 0.12 16
Corn Bran 91 76 81 52 78 11
10 17 51 0 6.3 3 0.04 0.15 0.1 0.13 0.08 18
Corn Germ, Full-fat 97 135 198 160 198 12 55 6 11 36 20 44.9 2 0.02 0.28 0.1 0.02 0.17 60
Corn Gluten Feed 90 80 86 56 83 22 25 9 12 38 36 3.2 7 0.11 0.84 1.3 0.25 0.47 84
Corn Gluten Meal 41% CP 91 85 93 62 88 46 63 5 9 32 23 3.2 3 0.13 0.55 0.2 0.07 0.62 35
Corn Gluten Meal 60% CP 91 89 99 67 93 67 65 3 6 11 23 2.5 2 0.06 0.54 0.2 0.10 0.90 40
Corn Cannery Waste 29 68 70 41 69 8 15 28 36 59 0 3.0 5 0.10 0.29 1.0
0.13 25
Cottonseed, Whole 91 95 107 73 99 23 38 27 37 47 100 19.4 5 0.16 0.64 1.0 0.06 0.24 34
Cottonseed, Whole, Delinted 90 95 107 73 99 24 39 19 28 40 100 22.9 5 0.12 0.54 1.2
0.24 36
Cottonseed, Whole, Extruded 92 87 98 67 91 26 50 32 44 53 33 9.5 5 0.17 0.68 1.3
0.24 38
Cotton Gin Trash (Burrs) 91 42 43 0 40 9
35 50 70 100 2.0 14 1.40 0.18 1.9
0.14 25
Cottonseed Hulls 90 45 45 3 44 5 45 48 70 87 100 1.8 3 0.15 0.08 1.0 0.02 0.05 10
Cottonseed Meal, Solv. Ext. 41% CP 90 77 82 53 79 47 42 13 18 25 23 1.5 7 0.22 1.23 1.6 0.05 0.44 66
Cottonseed Meal, Mech. Ext. 41% CP 92 79 85 55 81 46 50 13 19 31 23 5.0 7 0.21 1.18 1.6 0.05 0.42 64
Crab Waste Meal 91 29 37 0 30 32 65 11 13

3.0 43 15.00 1.88 0.5 1.63 0.27 107
Crambe Meal, Solv. Ext. 91 81 88 58 84 31 45 25 35 47 23 1.4 8 1.27 0.86 1.1 0.70 1.26 44
Crambe Meal, Mech. Ext. 92 88 98 65 91 28 50 24 33 42 25 17.0 7 1.22 0.78 1.0 0.65 1.18 41
Cranberry Pulp Meal 88 49 49 11 48 7
26 47 54 33 15.7 2





Crawfish Waste Meal 94 25 36 0 29 35 74 12 15


42 13.10 0.85



Curacao Phosphate 99 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 95 34.00 15.00



Defluorinated Phosphate 99 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 95 32.60 18.07 1.0

100
Diammonium Phosphate 98 0 0 0 0 115 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 35 0.52 20.41 0.0
2.16
Dicalcium Phosphate 96 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 94 22.00 18.65 0.1
1.00 70
Distillers Grain, Wet 25 90 100 68 94 28 52 8 18 40 4 9.6 6 0.28 0.78 1.2 0.28 0.40 95
Distillers Grain, Barley 90 75 79 50 77 30 56 16 20 44 4 8.5 4 0.15 0.67 1.0 0.18 0.43 50
Distillers Grain, Corn, Dry 91 99 113 75 105 30 58 8 16 40 4 10.0 4 0.09 0.66 0.9 0.14 0.45 65
Distillers Grain, Corn, Wet 36 101 115 77 108 28 54 8 16 40 4 10.0 4 0.09 0.66 0.9 0.14 0.45 65
Distillers Grain, Corn with Solubles 90 98 111 76 103 28 52 8 16 39 4 11.0 5 0.18 0.80 1.0 0.18 0.50 80
Distillers Corn Stillage 7 92 103 70 96 22 55 8 10 21 0 8.1 5 0.14 0.72 0.2
0.60 60
Distillers Grain, Sorghum, Dry 91 84 92 61 87 33 62 13 20 44 4 10.0 4 0.20 0.68 0.3
0.45 50
Distillers Grain, Sorghum, Wet 35 86 95 63 89 33 55 13 19 43 4 10.0 4 0.20 0.68 0.3
0.45 50
Distillers Grain, Sorghum with Solubles 92 85 93 62 88 33 53 12 18 42 4 10.0 4 0.23 0.70 0.5
0.40 55
Distillers Dried Solubles 93 87 96 64 90 29 0 4 7 22 4 7.5 8 0.35 1.20 1.8 0.28 0.55 91
Elephant (Napier) Grass Hay, Chopped 92 55 55 21 54 9
24 46 63 85 2.0 10 0.35 0.30 1.3
0.10
Fat, Animal, Poultry, Vegetable 99 195 285 230 285 0
0 0 0 0 99.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.0


Feather Meal Hydrolyzed 93 67 69 40 68 87 68 1 14 42 23 7.0 3 0.48 0.45 0.1 0.20 1.82 90
Fescue KY 31 Fresh 29 64 65 36 65 15 20 25 32 64 40 5.5 9 0.48 0.37 2.5
0.18 22
Fescue KY 31 Hay Early Bloom 88 65 66 37 66 18 22 25 31 64 98 6.6 8 0.48 0.36 2.6
0.27 24
Fescue KY 31 Hay Mature 88 52 52 16 51 11 30 30 42 73 98 5.0 6 0.45 0.26 1.7
0.14 22
Fescue (Red) Straw 94 43 44 0 41 4
41


1.1 6 0.00 0.06



Fish Meal 90 74 78 49 76 66 60 1 2 12 10 9.0 20 5.55 3.15 0.7 0.76 0.80 130
Flax Seed Hulls 91 38 40 0 36 9
32 39 50 98 1.5 10





Garbage Municipal Cooked 23 80 86 56 83 16
9 50 59 30 20.0 10 1.20 0.43 0.6 0.67

Glycerol (Glycerin) 88 90 100 68 94 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 5


3.00

Grain Screenings 90 65 66 37 66 14
14


5.5 9 0.25 0.34


30
Grain Dust 92 73 77 48 75 10
11


2.2 10 0.30 0.18


42
Grape Pomace Stemless 91 40 42 0 38 12 45 32 46 54 34 7.6 9 0.55 0.07 0.6 0.01
24
Grass Hay 88 58 58 26 58 10 30 33 41 63 98 3.0 6 0.60 0.21 2.0
0.20 28
Grass Silage 30 61 62 31 61 11 24 32 39 60 61 3.4 8 0.70 0.24 2.1
0.22 29
Guar Meal 90 72 75 47 74 39 34 16


3.9 5





Hominy Feed 90 89 99 67 93 11 48 5 8 21 9 6.5 3 0.04 0.55 0.6 0.06 0.10 32
Hop Leaves 37 49 49 11 48 15
15


3.6 35 2.80 0.64



Hop Vine Silage 30 53 53 18 53 15
21 24

3.1 20 3.30 0.37 1.8
0.22 44
Hops Spent 89 35 39 0 33 23
26 30

4.6 7 1.60 0.60



Kelp Dried 91 32 38 0 29 7
7 10

0.5 39 2.72 0.31



Kenaf Hay 92 48 48 9 47 10
31 44 56 98 2.9 12





Kochia Fresh 29 55 55 21 55 16
23


1.2 18 1.10 0.30



Kochia Hay 90 53 53 18 53 14
27


1.7 14 1.00 0.20



Kudzu Hay 90 54 54 20 54 16
33


2.6 7 3.00 0.23



Lespedeza Fresh Early Bloom 25 60 60 30 60 16 50 32


2.0 10 1.20 0.24 1.1
0.21
Lespedeza Hay 92 54 54 20 54 14 60 30


3.0 7 1.10 0.22 1.0
0.19 29
Limestone Ground 98 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 98 34.00 0.02

0.03
Limestone Dolomitic Ground 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 98 22.30 0.04 0.4


Linseed Meal, Solv. Ext. 91 77 82 53 79 38 36 10 18 25 23 1.7 6 0.43 0.91 1.5 0.04 0.47 60
Linseed Meal, Mech. Ext. 91 82 89 59 85 37 40 10 17 24 23 6.0 6 0.42 0.90 1.4 0.04 0.46 59
Meadow Hay 90 50 50 12 49 7 23 33 44 70 98 2.5 9 0.61 0.18 1.6
0.17 24
Meat Meal, Swine/Poultry 93 71 74 46 73 56 64 2 7 48 0 10.5 24 9.00 4.42 0.5 1.27 0.48 190
Meat and Bone Meal, Swine/Poultry 93 72 75 47 74 56 24 1 5 34 0 10.0 29 13.50 6.50



Milk, Dry, Skim 94 87 96 64 90 36 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 8 1.36 1.09 1.7 0.96 0.34 41
Mint Slug Silage 27 55 55 21 55 14
24


1.8 16 1.10 0.57



Molasses Beet 77 75 79 50 77 8 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 12 0.14 0.03 6.0 1.64 0.60 18
Molasses Cane 77 74 78 49 76 6 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 14 0.95 0.09 4.2 2.30 0.68 15
Molasses Cane Dried 94 74 78 49 76 9 0 2 3 7 0 0.3 14 1.10 0.15 3.6 3.00
30
Molasses, Cond. Fermentation Solubles 43 69 71 43 70 16 0 0 0 0 0 1.0 26 2.12 0.14 7.5 2.73 0.93 30
Molasses Citrus 65 75 79 50 77 9 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 8 1.84 0.15 0.2 0.11 0.23 137
Molasses Wood, Hemicellulose 61 70 73 44 71 1 0 1 2 4 0 0.6 7 1.10 0.10 0.1
0.05
Monoammonium Phosphate 98 0 0 0 0 70 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 24 0.30 24.70 0.0
1.42 81
Mono-dicalcium Phosphate 97 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 94 16.70 21.10 0.1
1.20 70
Oat Hay 90 54 54 20 54 10 25 31 39 63 98 2.3 8 0.40 0.27 1.6 0.42 0.21 28
Oat Silage 35 60 60 30 60 12 21 31 39 59 61 3.2 10 0.34 0.30 2.4 0.50 0.25 27
Oat Straw 91 48 48 9 47 4 40 41 48 73 98 2.3 8 0.24 0.07 2.5 0.78 0.22 6
Oat Grain 89 76 81 52 78 13 18 11 15 28 34 5.0 4 0.05 0.41 0.5 0.11 0.20 40
Oat Grain, Steam Flaked 84 88 98 65 91 13 26 11 15 30 32 4.9 4 0.05 0.37 0.5 0.11 0.20 40
Oat Groats 91 91 102 69 95 18 15 3


6.6 2 0.08 0.47 0.4 0.10 0.20
Oat Middlings 90 91 102 69 95 16 20 4 6

6.0 3 0.07 0.48 0.5
0.23
Oat Mill By-product 89 33 38 0 30 7
27 37

2.4 6 0.13 0.22 0.6
0.24
Oat Hulls 93 38 40 0 36 4 25 33 41 75 90 1.6 7 0.16 0.15 0.6 0.08 0.14 31
Orange Pulp Dried 89 79 85 55 81 9
9 16 20 33 1.8 4 0.71 0.11 0.6
0.05
Orchardgrass Fresh Early Bloom 24 65 66 37 66 14 23 30 32 54 41 4.0 9 0.33 0.39 2.7 0.08 0.20 21
Orchardgrass Hay 88 59 59 28 59 10 27 34 40 67 98 3.3 8 0.32 0.30 2.6 0.41 0.20 26
Pea Vine Hay 89 59 59 28 59 11
32 50 62 92 2.0 7 1.25 0.24 1.3
0.20 20
Pea Vine Silage 25 58 58 26 58 16
29 44 55 61 3.3 8 1.25 0.28 1.6
0.29 32
Pea Vine Straw 89 51 51 14 50 7
41 49 72 98 1.4 7 0.75 0.13 1.1
0.15
Peas Cull 89 85 93 62 88 25 22 7 9 15 0 1.4 4 0.14 0.46 1.1 0.06 0.26 30
Peanut Hulls 91 22 36 0 18 7
63 65 74 98 1.5 5 0.20 0.07 0.9


Peanut Meal, Solv. Ext. 91 77 82 53 79 51 27 9 16 27 23 2.5 6 0.26 0.62 1.1 0.03 0.30 38
Peanut Skins 92 0 0 0 0 17
13 20 28 0 22.0 3 0.19 0.20



Pearl Millet Grain 87 82 89 59 85 13
2 6 18 34 4.5 3 0.03 0.36 0.5


Pineapple Greenchop 17 47 47 7 46 8
24 35 64 41 2.4 7 0.28 0.08



Pineapple Bran 89 71 74 46 73 5
20 33 66 20 1.5 3 0.26 0.12



Pineapple Presscake 21 71 74 46 73 5
24 35 69 20 0.8 3 0.25 0.09



Potato Vine Silage 15 59 59 28 59 15
26


3.7 19 2.10 0.29 4.0
0.37
Potatoes Cull 21 80 86 56 83 10 0 2 3 4 0 0.4 5 0.03 0.24 2.2 0.30 0.09
Potato Waste Wet 14 82 89 59 85 7 0 9 11 18 0 1.5 3 0.16 0.25 1.2 0.36 0.11 12
Potato Waste Dried 89 85 93 62 88 8 0 7 9 15 0 0.5 5 0.16 0.25 1.2 0.39 0.11 12
Potato Waste Wet with Lime 17 80 86 56 83 5 0 10 12 16 0 0.3 9 4.20 0.18



Potato Waste Filter Cake 14 77 82 53 79 5 0 2


7.7 3 0.10 0.19 0.2


Poultry By-product Meal 93 79 85 55 81 62 49 2


14.5 17 4.00 2.25 0.5 0.58 0.56 129
Poultry Manure Dried 89 38 40 0 36 28 22 13 15 35 0 2.1 33 10.20 2.80 2.3 1.05 0.20 520
Prairie Hay 91 50 50 12 49 7 37 34 47 67 98 2.0 8 0.40 0.15 1.1 0.06 0.06 34
Pumpkins, Cull 10 85 93 62 88 16
14 18 25 0 8.9 9 0.24 0.43 3.3


Rice Straw 91 40 42 0 38 4
38 47 72 100 1.4 13 0.23 0.08 1.2
0.11
Rice Straw Ammoniated 87 45 45 3 44 9
39 53 68 100 1.3 12 0.25 0.08 1.1
0.11
Rice Grain 89 79 85 55 81 8 30 10 12 16 34 1.9 5 0.07 0.32 0.4 0.09 0.05 17
Rice Polishings 90 90 100 68 94 14
4 5

14.0 9 0.05 1.34 1.2 0.12 0.19 28
Rice Bran 91 71 74 46 73 14 30 13 18 24 0 16.0 11 0.07 1.70 1.8 0.09 0.19 40
Rice Hulls 92 13 35 0 8 3 45 44 70 81 90 0.9 20 0.12 0.07 0.5 0.08 0.08 24
Rice Mill By-product 91 39 41 0 37 7
32 50 60 0 5.7 19 0.25 0.48 2.2
0.30 31
Rye Grass Hay 90 58 58 26 58 10 30 33 38 65 98 3.3 8 0.45 0.30 2.2
0.18 27
Rye Grass Silage 32 59 59 28 59 14 25 22 37 59 61 3.3 8 0.43 0.38 2.9 0.73 0.23 29
Rye Straw 89 44 44 1 43 4
44 55 71 100 1.5 6 0.24 0.09 1.0 0.24 0.11
Rye Grain 89 80 86 56 83 14 20 3 9 19 34 2.5 3 0.07 0.55 0.5 0.03 0.17 33
Safflower Meal, Solv. Ext. 91 56 56 23 56 24
33 41 57 36 1.3 6 0.35 0.79 0.9 0.21 0.23 65
Safflower Meal Dehulled, Solv. Ext. 91 75 79 50 77 47
11 20 27 30 0.8 7 0.38 1.50 1.2 0.18 0.22 36
Safflower Hulls 91 14 35 0 34 4
58 73 90 100 3.7 2





Sagebrush Fresh 50 50 50 12 49 13
25 30 38
9.2 10 1.00 0.25

0.22
Sanfoin Hay 88 61 62 31 62 14 60 24


3.1 9





Shrimp Waste Meal 90 48 48 9 47 50 60 11


5.5 25 8.50 1.75
1.15

Sodium Tripolyphosphate 96 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0.0 96 0.00 25.98 0.0
0.00
Sorghum Stover 87 54 54 20 54 5
33 41 65 100 1.8 10 0.50 0.12 1.2


Sorghum Silage 32 59 59 28 59 9 25 27 38 59 70 2.7 6 0.48 0.21 1.7 0.45 0.11 30
Sorghum Grain (Milo) Ground 89 82 89 59 85 11 55 3 6 15 5 3.1 2 0.04 0.32 0.4 0.10 0.14 18
Sorhum Grain (Milo) Flaked 82 90 100 68 94 11 62 3 6 15 38 3.1 2 0.04 0.28 0.4 0.10 0.14 18
Soybean Hay 89 52 52 16 51 16
33 40 55 92 3.5 8 1.28 0.29 1.0 0.15 0.24 24
Soybean Straw 88 42 43 0 40 5
44 54 70 100 1.4 6 1.59 0.06 0.6
0.26
Soybeans Whole 88 92 103 70 96 41 28 8 11 15 100 18.8 5 0.27 0.64 1.9 0.03 0.34 56
Soybeans Whole, Extruded 88 93 104 71 97 40 35 9 11 15 100 18.8 5 0.27 0.64 2.0 0.03 0.34 56
Soybeans Whole, Roasted 88 93 104 71 97 40 48 9 11 15 100 18.8 5 0.27 0.64 2.0 0.03 0.34 56
Soybean Hulls 90 77 82 52 79 13 28 39 48 62 28 2.3 5 0.60 0.19 1.3 0.02 0.12 38
Soybean Meal, Solv. Ext. 44% CP 90 84 92 61 87 49 35 7 10 15 23 1.5 7 0.36 0.70 2.2 0.07 0.41 62
Soybean Meal, Solv. Ext. 49% CP 90 87 96 64 90 54 36 4 6 9 23 1.1 6 0.28 0.71 2.2 0.08 0.45 61
Soybean Mill Feed 90 50 50 12 49 15
36 46

1.9 6 0.46 0.19 1.7
0.07
Spelt Grain 88 75 79 50 77 13 27 10 17 21 34 2.1 4 0.04 0.40 0.4
0.15 47
Sudangrass Fresh Immature 18 70 73 44 71 17
23 29 55 41 3.9 9 0.46 0.36 2.0
0.11 24
Sudangrass Hay 88 57 57 25 57 9 30 36 43 67 98 1.8 10 0.50 0.22 2.2 0.80 0.12 26
Sudangrass Silage 31 58 58 26 58 10 28 30 42 64 61 3.1 10 0.58 0.27 2.4 0.52 0.14 29
Sunflower Meal, Solv. Ext. 92 65 66 37 66 40 27 18 22 36 23 2.8 8 0.44 0.97 1.1 0.15 0.33 55
Sunflower Meal with Hulls 91 57 57 25 57 31 35 27 32 44 37 2.4 7 0.40 1.03 1.0
0.30 85
Sunflower Seed Hulls 90 40 42 0 38 4 65 52 63 73 90 2.2 3 0.00 0.11 0.2
0.19 200
Sugar Cane Bagasse 91 39 41 0 37 1
49 60 86 100 0.6 4 0.90 0.29 0.5
0.10
Tapioca Meal, Cassava By-product 89 82 89 59 85 1
5 8 34
0.8 3 0.03 0.05



Timothy Fresh Pre-bloom 26 64 65 36 65 11 20 31 36 59 41 3.8 7 0.40 0.28 1.9 0.57 0.15 28
Timothy Hay Early Bloom 88 59 59 28 59 11 22 32 39 63 98 2.7 6 0.58 0.26 1.9 0.51 0.21 30
Timothy Hay Full Bloom 88 57 57 25 57 8 30 34 40 65 98 2.6 5 0.43 0.20 1.8 0.62 0.13 25
Timothy Silage 34 59 59 28 59 10 25 34 45 70 61 3.4 7 0.50 0.27 1.7
0.15
Tomato Pomace Dried 92 64 65 36 65 23
26 50 55 34 10.6 6 0.43 0.59 3.6


Triticale Hay 90 56 56 23 56 10
34 41 69 98

0.30 0.26 2.3

25
Triticale Silage 34 58 58 26 58 14
30 39 56 61 3.6
0.58 0.34 2.7
0.28 36
Triticale Grain 89 85 93 62 88 14 25 4 5 22 34 2.4 2 0.07 0.39 0.5
0.17 37
Turnip Tops (Purple) 18 68 70 41 69 18
10 13

2.6 14 3.10 0.40 3.0 1.80 0.27
Turnip Roots 9 86 95 63 89 12 0 11 34 44 40 1.6 9 0.65 0.31 3.1 0.65 0.43 40
Urea 46%N 99 0 0 0 0 288 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 0 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.00 0.00 0
Vetch Hay 89 58 58 26 58 18 14 30 33 48 92 1.8 8 1.25 0.34 2.4
0.13
Wheat Fresh, Pasture 21 71 74 46 73 20 16 18 30 50 41 4.0 13 0.35 0.36 3.1 0.67 0.22
Wheat Hay 90 57 57 25 57 9 25 29 38 66 98 2.0 8 0.21 0.22 1.4 0.50 0.19 23
Wheat Silage 33 59 59 28 59 12 21 28 37 62 61 3.2 8 0.40 0.28 2.1 0.50 0.21 27
Wheat Straw 91 43 44 0 41 3 60 43 57 81 98 1.8 8 0.17 0.06 1.3 0.32 0.17 6
Wheat Straw Ammoniated 85 50 50 12 49 9 25 40 55 76 98 1.5 9 0.15 0.05 1.3 0.30 0.16 6
Wheat Grain 89 88 98 65 91 14 23 3 4 12 0 2.3 2 0.05 0.43 0.4 0.09 0.15 40
Wheat Grain Hard 89 88 98 65 91 14 28 3 6 14 0 2.0 2 0.05 0.43 0.5
0.16 45
Wheat Grain Soft 89 88 98 65 91 12 23 3 4 12 0 2.0 2 0.06 0.40 0.4
0.15 30
Wheat Grain, Steam Flaked 85 91 102 69 95 14 29 3 4 12 0 2.3 2 0.05 0.39 0.4
0.15 40
Wheat Grain Sprouted 86 88 98 65 91 12 18 3 4 13 0 2.0 2 0.04 0.36 0.4
0.17 45
Wheat Bran 89 70 73 44 71 17 28 11 14 46 4 4.4 7 0.13 1.32 1.4 0.05 0.24 96
Wheat Middlings 89 80 86 56 83 18 22 8 11 36 2 4.7 5 0.14 1.00 1.3 0.05 0.20 98
Wheat Mill Run 90 76 81 52 78 17 28 9 12 37 0 4.5 6 0.11 1.10 1.2 0.07 0.22 90
Wheat Shorts 89 78 83 54 80 19 25 8 10 30 0 5.3 5 0.10 0.93 1.1 0.08 0.20 118
Wheatgrass Crested Fresh Early Bloom 37 60 60 30 60 11 25 26 28 50 41 1.6 7 0.46 0.32 2.4


Wheatgrass Crested Fresh Full Bloom 50 55 55 21 55 10 33 33 36 65 41 1.6 7 0.39 0.28 2.1


Wheatgrass Crested Hay 92 54 54 20 54 10 33 33 36 65 98 2.4 7 0.33 0.20 2.0

32
Whey Dried 94 82 89 59 85 14 15 0 0 0 0 0.9 10 0.98 0.88 1.3 1.20 0.92 10
Yeast, Brewer's 92 79 85 55 81 47 30 3 4
0 0.9 7 0.13 1.49 1.8