• Leave the land that has been placed in your care in better condition than when you began managing it.


  • Take half and leave half of each year's pasture growth. The importance of root reserves adequate for a plant to survive the winter and vigorous growth the next year is indisputable. Conservative stocking rates allow roots to penetrate more deeply, and helps make plants more competitive, drought resistant, winter tolerant and productive over the long haul.


  • Never graze the same pasture at the same time two years in a row. This simple concept can be one of the building blocks of most rotational grazing systems. It builds in seasonal changes of use and stimulates diversity by giving both warm- and cool-season plants periods of rest to assure vigor and high levels of production.


  • Calve to grass. While many factors must be considered when determining a beginning calving date, matching your cows' nutritional needs and production schedule to the availability of green grass can lower feed costs and reduce the exposure of newborn calves to winter weather.


  • Cows are lazy. If not forced to move around, cows will spot-graze and overgraze. The reality is that reasonable inputs of labor and facilities are necessary to efficiently and effectively harvest grass with cows.


  • "Manage" is a verb. Stocking rates, stock densities, time of calving, investment levels, and all of their consequences, both positive and negative, fall to the manager.